Lake Barcroft  
 
community

 

Plant List for Lake Barcroft Resource Protection Area Demonstration Garden at Beach 5

by Betsy Washington

In 2003, Fairfax County designated lands within 100 feet of perennial streams and lakes as ”Resource Protection Areas” (RPA) in order to preserve and protect our waters as they drain into the Chesapeake Bay.  Native vegetation is recognized as superior in maintaining the web of life for birds, insects and all other wildlife while retarding erosion, slowing runoff and filtering pollution in the Chesapeake watershed.

Prior to 2006, this shoreline was a mass of highly invasive, non-native plants.  In 2006-2007, volunteers of the Lake Community with help from the Lake Barcroft Watershed Improvement District removed the vegetation, prepared the soil and planted several hundred commonly available native plants. Volunteers continue to assist in the garden and residents are encouraged to assist, enjoy and learn from the Watershed friendly garden.

Signs in the garden identify all of the plants.

These plants, the shoreline protection (bio-logs) and the floating docks were chosen to demonstrate the effectiveness and beauty of native plants and low impact landscaping techniques in and around the RPA.

Funded by the Lake Barcroft Association with contributions of labor and monies from Lake Barcroft residents, a grant from Fairfax Water and the contribution of labor and materials of the Lake Barcroft Watershed Improvement District.  The grant from FAIRFAX WATER was the impetus for this project.

All Plants Listed are native to the Fairfax County region of Virginia and appropriate for riparian buffer zones, except those denoted by an asterisk* which are native to the SE region. 

This list is categorized into Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Perennials, Grasses and Ferns. The plant names within each category are listed alphabetically by botanical name.

All Photographs were taken by Betsy Washington except three photos as noted in Table.

TREES

COMMON & BOTANICAL  NAME

PHOTOGRAPH

DESCRIPTION

SOIL  & NATIVE HABITAT

SUN/ SHADE

WILDLIFE VALUE

LANDSCAPE USES

NOTABLE CULTIVARS

Downy Serviceberry

Amelanchier arborea

Small tree, often multi-trunked, with fleecy white flowers in early April, edible blue fruit in June, showy fall colored.

Dry to moist

Wooded river banks, swamps, rocky slopes

Sun to shade

High:  

Songbirds, small mammals, butterflies, pollinators

Understory tree

Specimen, woodland edges, groupings, streambanks

 

Apple Serviceberry

Amelanchier x grandiflora

Hybrid of A. arborea and laevis)

Small tree with fleecy white flowers in early April, edible fruit in June loved by songbirds, orange to red fall color

Adaptable to many soils

Wooded river banks, swamps, rocky slopes

Sun to Shade

High: 

Songbirds, Insects, Humans

Understory tree

Specimen, woodland edge, groupings

‘Autumn Brilliance’

Orange-red fall color, resists disease

River Birch

Betula nigra

          

50 – 70’ high

Fast growing, often multi-trunked with outstanding exfoliating bark creamy white to salmon.

Prefers damp soils but very adaptable

Along rivers, lakes

Full sun to part shade

Very High:

 >400 butterfly moths use, many songbirds and small mammals

Mid-level canopy tree

Specimen, Closely spaced groves, along lakes or streams

 

Pignut Hickory

Carya glabra

75 - 100' high

Tall, stately tree with narrow crown, long lived and slow growing, gold fall color, hickory nuts

Very adaptable to soils, deep taproot –best to plant small size

Widely distributed

Full sun to shade

Very High

Insects, butterflies, birds, mammals; host to Luna moth & Hairstreak butterflies

Canopy tree

Saplings are shade tolerant, deep roots and narrow canopy allow underplanting

 

Eastern Redbud

Cercis canadensis

20-35' high

Fast growing, small tree with heart shaped leaves, magenta-pink flowers on bare branches in April, pod like fruit

Adaptable to soils, tolerates high pH

Woodland edges, gaps

Full sun to shade

Songbirds, pollinators

Host for Harry's
Elfin butterfly

Understory tree

Specimen, woodland edge, groupings

‘Forest Pansy’ has red purple foliage,; ‘Covey’ is dwarf weeping tree

White Fringetree

Chionanthus virginicus

15 - 30' high

Large shrub to small tree, white fragrant fleecy white flowers in May, females have blue olive-like fruit in fall, yellow fall color 

Adaptable to soils from wet to dry,

Along local streams, lakes

Full sun to shade

Over 30 spp of songbirds use fruit, mammals, pollinators

Understory tree

Woodland edge, specimen, mixed borders, fragrance, by water

 

Flowering Dogwood

Cornus florida 

15 - 40' high

Small tree, with showy white flowers in spring, clusters of red fruit in fall, red-purple fall color 

Prefers moist soils; needs watering in droughts

Woodland edges

Full sun to part shade, best with dappled or afternoon shade

High

43 spp. of songbirds; 117 spp. of butterflies

Understory tree

Woodland edges, specimen

‘Appalachian Springs’ is resistant to dogwood anthracnose, white flowers

Common Witchhazel

Hamamelis virginiana

15 - 30' high

Large shrub to small tree, with fragrant yellow flowers in late fall, yellow fall color

Adaptable to soils from damp to dry and rocky

Widely distributed

Full sun to shade

Attracts many moths and pollinators

Harvester Butterfly

Understory tree

Woodlands, woodland edges, mixed borders

 

American Holly

Ilex opaca

15 - 50' high

 Evergreen tree, spiny leaves and abundant red berries in winter; only females bear fruit

Moist, acidic soils

Sandy woods, above streams

Sun to shade,

One of best shade tolerant evergreens

Many songbirds, pollinators, host to Henry's Elfin

butterfly

Nesting, shelter

Evergreen

Screening for shade or sun, specimens, groupings

'Maryland Dwarf' - slow growth, dwarf mounded habit, 3 - 4' H

'Satyr Hill'- w/ abundant fruit, vigorous grower

Tulip Poplar

Liriodendron tulipifera

100'+ high

Very tall tree with straight trunks, fast growth, fragrant orange-yellow flowers in May, yellow fall color;

Prefers moist soils but adaptable

Along rivers, bottomlands, slopes

Full sun to part shade

Hummingbirds, butterflies, larval food of tiger swallowtails, songbirds, small mammals

Overstory tree

Fast growing, sparse roots allow underplantings

 

Tupelo or Black Gum

Nyssa sylvatica

30 - 75' high

Medium to large, alligator hide bark, glossy foliage turns fiery orange-red in fall ; females have nutritious blue fruit 

Adaptable to soils moist to dry

Widely distributed

Full sun to shade

High:

Songbirds, pollinators, mallards, small mammals

Mid-level canopy tree

Specimen, woodland or lake edge, street tree

‘Wildfire’ –male, quick grower with vivid red new growth, red fall color

Eastern
White Pine

Pinus strobus

75 - 100' high

Large, fast growing evergreen pine with massive horizontally tiered branches, and soft blue green needles

Dry to moist, best on moist, well drained soils

Widely distributed

Full sun

High:

Songbirds, mammals

Evergreen

Fast growing screen, soft textured evergreen

Many dwarf cultivars available

White Oak

Quercus alba

75 - 100' high

Majestic tall, wide-spreading tree, very long lived. Orange- red fall color, acorns

Very adaptable to soils – Damp to dry

Widely distributed

Full sun to part shade

Very High:

Over 500 species of butterflies/moths and many songbirds & small mammals

Canopy tree Specimen, woodlands, superior wildlife value

 

Bald Cypress

Taxodium distichum

50 - 100' high

Tall, stately, deciduous conifer with fine texture

Russet late fall color

Wet to dry soils, tolerates flooding

Coastal Plain

Full sun to part shade

Waterfowl, marsh birds

Canopy tree

Specimen, near lakes or streams

‘Autumn Cascade’ – dwarf, weeping cultivar

Eastern Hemlock

Tsuga canadensis

75 - 100'Graceful, pyramidal evergreen with fine texture and nodding branch tips, small cones

Moist

Cool valleys, above streams; great screen for shade, mountains & piedmont

Part shade to shade

Songbirds, mammals

Shelter

Evergreen

Screening, shade tolerant, susceptible to wooley adlegids

'Cole's Prostrate' small dwarf cultivar reaching only 1 - 2' high

SHRUBS

Sweet Pepperbush

Clethra alnifolia

6 – 8’ high

Deciduous shrub to high with long lasting, fragrant white flower spires July – August, gold fall color,

Prefers moist to damp soils, but adaptable

 Coastal plain

Full sun to shade

High:

Attracts many butterflies, especially swallowtails, skippers, hairstreaks, pollinators

Outstanding for fragrant flowers and  butterfly gardens massing, mixed borders, water's edge, woodland edges, along paths, many sizes available

‘Sixteen Candles’ - Dwarf cultivar to 2- 3’ high

‘Ruby Spires’ - Tall cultivar with fragrant pink flowers

Sweetshrub, Carolina Allspice

Calycanthus floridus

5 - 8' high

Deciduous shrub with very fragrant small flowers in May-June, smell like pineapple-banana-strawberry, yellow fall color

Moist to dry woodlands

Mountains

Sun to Shade

Beetles, other pollinators, small mammals

Fragrant flowers, woodland edges, shrub border, accent

‘Athens’ – very fragrant yellow green flowers

‘Michael Lindsey’ – very fragrant reddish flowers

Silky Dogwood

Cornus amomum

6 - 12' high

Lacy white flowers in June followed by blue fruit in late summer, purplish stems

Moist, acidic soils

Forest wetlands, swamps, pond banks

Sun to Part Shade

High

Songbirds, waterfowl, mammals, pollinators & butterflies

Naturalizing along woodland edges, wetlands, streams or lakes

 

Red Twig Dogwood

Cornus sericea

6 - 12' high

Upright stems turn bright red in winter, lacy white flowers in May, white fruit in late summer

Damp to dry soils

Swamps in mountains & north

Sun or part shade

High:

Birds, pollinators

Colorful winter stems, shrub borders, along lakes, streams, can cut stems back in early spring for best color

 

American hazelnut

Corylus americana

8 - 15' high

Produces brown to red catkins in spring, light brown, edible nut in leafy bracts in fall, forms thickets

Moist to dry soils

Dry woodland edges or floodplains

Part shade

Songbirds, small  mammals, edible nut

Naturalizing, woodland edges, hedgerows

 

Dwarf Fothergilla*

Fothergilla gardenii

3 - 6' high

Upright, wispy shrub with fragrant white bottlebrush flowers in May and orange-red fall color

Adaptable, damp to average soils

* Native to damp, sandy soils along SE coast

Sun to part shade

Insects, pollinators

Mixed shrub borders, woodland edges, paths, massing, along streams, lakes

 

Smooth Hydrangea

Hydrangea arborescens

3 - 6' high

Medium sized hydrangea with showy white flowers through summer, flowers turn green in fall, blooms on new wood

Moist to average soils

Shady stream banks of mountains, Piedmont

Sun in moist soils, part shade best, tolerates heavy shade

Pollinators

Mixed shrub borders, woodlands and edges, shade gardens, stream banks, can be cut back in early spring

Several cultivars with large or double flowerheads

Oakleaf Hydrangea*

Hydrangea quercifolia

4 - 8' high

Large hydrangea with large white flowers in early summer, boldly lobed foliage turns red-purple in fall, exfoliating bark

Moist to dry

* - Native to woods of AL, GA, MS, TN

Sun in moist soils, part shade best, tolerates heavy shade

Pollinators

Mixed shrub borders, woodlands and edges, massing

 

Inkberry

Ilex glabra

3 - 10' high

Evergreen shrub with billowy habit similar to boxwood, black berries in fall-winter

Prefers damp to  moist soils, tolerates average soils

Coastal plain

Sun to part shade

High:

Songbirds, woodpeckers, pollinators

Evergreen accent, low screening or hedging, boxwood substitute, by streams, lakes

‘Densa’ – compact, dwarf habit to 4 – 5’ high & wide

Winterberry

Ilex verticillata

4 - 12' high

Large deciduous holly covered with bright red berries through winter

Separate male & female plants

Wet  to dry soils, adaptable

Swamps, stream banks

Sun to part shade

High:

Songbirds, waterfowl, small mammals

Winter interest, woodland edges, mixed shrub borders, along streams and lakes and wet areas

'Winter Red' - copious fruit all winter- 8'H;

'Southern Gentleman' = male

'Red Sprite' - dwarf cultivar with large fruit to 4' H; "Jim Dandy = male

Virginia Sweetspire

Itea virginica

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 5.0

3 - 6' high

Mid-sized shrub with arching branches, lightly fragrant white flowers in June; long lasting vivid red fall color

Adaptable but prefers moist to damp soils

Swamps, wooded stream banks, flood tolerant

Full sun to shade

High:

Songbirds, waterfowl, small mammals, pollinators

Mixed shrub border, massing, bank stabilizer, along streams or lake, for vivid fall color

‘Henry’s Garnet’ – 4 – 5’ high, vivid red fall color

‘Little Henry’-dwarf 3 – 4’ high, similar to above

Mountain Laurel

Kalmia latifolia

8 - 20' high

Beautiful evergreen shrub with showy clusters of cup shaped white blooms speckled with red in May

Needs acidic, well drained but moisture retentive soils

Acidic woods, swamp edges

Part shade to shade, tolerates sun w/ moisture

Songbirds, butterflies, small mammals

Understory evergreen shrub, for accent or massing on slopes, above streams, lakes, woodland edges, slopes

Many cultivars

Spicebush

Lindera benzoin

6 - 12' high

Deciduous shrub with very early spring yellow flowers, red berries in fall, spicy foliage

Needs wet to moist soils

Moist woodlands, floodplain forest, along streams

Part shade to shade

High:

Songbirds, pollinators, host to spicebush swallowtail , Prometheus moth, other butterflies

Understory shrub for woodland edges, damp areas, beside streams or lakes, for early spring bloom

 

Red Chokeberry

Photinia pyrifolia

(Aronia arbutifolia)  old name

6 - 12' high

Tall, deciduous shrub, with arching stems, white flowers in spring, glossy red berries in fall - winter, red fall color

Damp to regular acidic soils

Forested wetlands, shrub bogs, forests, fields

Sun or

Tolerates infrequent flooding Part-shade

Pollinators, songbirds, small mammals

Mixed shrub borders, massing, woodland edges, along streams, lakes

‘Brilliantissima’

Prolific fruit, fiery red fall color

Eastern Ninebark

Physocarpus opulifolius

5 - 12' high

Deciduous shrub with lobed leaves and clusters of white flowers in late spring, followed by showy fruit capsules

Very adaptable; dry or damp soils

Bogs, forests, stream banks, lakeshores

Sun to full shade

 Pollinators, small mammals, waterfowl

Mixed borders, massing, foliage color accent, beside streams, lakes

‘Summer Wine’-  compact, cultivar to 5’ high; deep red-purple  foliage

Dwarf or Coast Azalea

Rhododendron atlanticum

3 - 6' high

Fragrant white to pink flowers in May, suckers into colonies on sandy soils

Damp, acidic soils

Coastal plain & sandy soils

Part Shade to Shade

Hummingbirds, pollinators, songbirds,
Shelter

Woodland edges, shady borders, bank stabilizer along streams, lakes in light soils

 

Pinxterbloom Azalea

Rhododendron periclymenoides

5 - 12' high

Deciduous azalea that forms colonies. Fragrant honeysuckle-like pink blooms in late June, bronze to red fall color

Moist but well drained acidic soils

Forests, dry rocky woods, swamps

Part shade

Hummingbirds, butterflies, songbirds, small mammals

Woodland edges, shady borders, massing, stream and lake banks

‘Choptank Rose’ – natural hybrid w/ R. atlanticum –3-4’ high, w/ fragrant pink flowers in May

Choptank Rose Azalea

Natural hybrid of R. atlanticum & periclymenoides found in MD along Choptank River

3 - 5' high

Deciduous azalea with fragrant light pink flowers in late May, low habit

Damp to normal soils, prefers acidic, sandy soils

Coastal plain

Part shade

Hummingbirds, pollinators, waterfowl, small mammals

Woodland edges, shady borders, low massing, stream and lake edges

Choptank Rose

Swamp Azalea

Rhododendron viscosum

6 - 12' high

Deciduous azalea with fragrant white flowers in May, bronzy-red fall color

Wet to normal acidic soils

Swamps, bogs, stream edges

Sun to Part Shade

Hummingbirds, pollinators,  waterfowl, small mammals

Woodland edges, specimen for fragrance, wet areas, stream and lake edges

 

Staghorn
Sumac

Rhus hirta

15 - 30' high

Deciduous, colonizing large shrub with open, antler-like branching, velvety  branches & pyramidal panicles of greenish flowers and fuzzy red fruit

Dry to wet, very adaptable

Dry road- sides, banks, fields, forest edges

Sun

High:

Songbirds, pollinators, mammals

Naturalizing, challenging sites, woodland edges, suckers into colonies, bank stabilizer, thickets

Tiger Eyes™

Showy, compact cultivar to 6' with soft gold ferny foliage, orange-red fall color, does not spread as much

Early Lowbush Blueberry

Vaccineum pallidum

1 - 2' high

Colonizing, low blueberry with white flowers in spring followed by sweet blueberries in summer, orange – red fall color

Well drained, dry, acidic soils

Dry woods and barrens, forms groundcover

Sun to part-shade

High:

Songbirds, butterflies, pollinators, small mammals

Naturalizing, woodland or border edges, dry, slopes, bank stabilizer

 

Possumhaw Viburnum

Viburnum nudum

6 - 12' high

Glossy, smooth leaves turn red-purple in fall, lacy white flowers in June followed by pink and blue fruit in fall, high wildlife value

Damp to normal soils

Bogs, swamps – needs extra H20 in droughts

Sun to part shade

High:

Songbirds, turtles, pollinators

Shrub borders, massing, specimen, woodland edges, stream and lake edges

Best fruiting with several cultivars or native strains

Mapleleaf Viburnum

Viburnum acerifolium

3 - 6'  high

Mid-sized deciduous shrub w/ maple-like leaves, pink to red in fall, white flowers in June blue-black fruit in fall

Damp to dry woods, tolerates dry, rocky shade, forms thickets

Woodlands

Sun to heavy shade

High:

Songbirds, small mammals, box turtles, pollinators, host to spring azure butterfly

Woodlands, naturalizing, spreads into colonies, tolerates dry shade

 
                     

 

Vines

Trumpet creeper

Campsis radicans

20 - 30' twining vine

Vigorous, sometimes aggressive vine with large orange to red trumpet-like flowers in summer

Dry to moist soils

Thickets, forest edges, fields, floodplains

Sun to part shade

Hummingbirds, butterflies

Arbors, tall poles, can spread aggressively by runners, easiest where roots are confined

 

Virgin's Bower

Clematis virginica

12 - 15' high

Twining deciduous vine  with starry white flowers from July - Sept, scrambles over fences, small arbors, shrubs

Dry to moist soils

Woods, stream banks, thickets, swamps, fencerows

Sun to shade

Pollinators

Scrambles over large shrubs, fences, trellises

 

Coral Honeysuckle

Lonicera sempervirens

6 - 20' high

Semi-evergreen twining vine with tubular red flowers from spring through fall, followed by red berries;

Dry to moist soil

Woodland edges, fencerows, cliffs, small arbors

Sun  to part shade

High:

Hummingbirds, butterflies, songbirds, pollinators, small mammals

Excellent vine for small arbors, trellises, fences, scrambling over rocks or banks,

 

American Wisteria

Wisteria frutescens

15 - 25' high

Twining vine with lightly fragrant blue flowers in May-June and bean like fruitpods

Moist to wet

Forests, forested wetlands, swamps, stream banks

Sun to part shade

Pollinators

Outstanding for trellises, fences, arbors, near stream or lakes, not invasive like the Asian species

'Amethyst Falls' - popular form with violet blue flowers  and sporadic re-bloom through fall

 

Perennials

Nodding Onion

Allium cernuum

6 - 24" high

Small onion with nodding pink flowers in summer and slender strap-like leaves

Well drained rocky soil

Rocky ledges, gravel or wooded slopes, rock gardens

Sun to shade

Butterflies, pollinators

Rock gardens, woodland edges, low meadows

 

Bluestar

Amsonia tabernaemontana

2 - 3' high

Starry light blue flowers in May top willowy stems, gold fall color

Wet to normal soils

Streams, swamps

Sun to part shade

Butterflies, pollinators

Perennial borders, stream or lake edges, damp soils, woodland edges

 

Hubricht's Bluestar*

Amsonia hubrichtii

3 - 4' high

Native to SW VA and southern plains, slender leaves, stunning gold fall color, & sky blue starry flowers in May

Dry to moist

Drought tolerant, meadows, prairies

Sun

Butterflies, pollinators

Perennial and mixed borders, massing, meadows, for spring flowers and fall color

 

Plaintain-leaf Pussytoes

Antenarria plantaginoides

6 - 18" high

Low, spreading groundcover for dry soils, wooly white flowers resembling kitten's paws in early summer on stalks creeping foliage

Dry

Open woods, barrens, ledges

Sun to  part shade

Butterflies, songbirds, host to American & Painted Lady butterflies

Excellent groundcover for dry slopes, woodland or path edges, among stepping stones

 

Wild Columbine

Aquilegia canadensis

6 - 30" high

wildflower with Delicate red & yellow spurred flower, above lacy, divided foliage

Dry to moist

Rich rocky woods, cliffs, banks

Sun to part shade

Hummingbirds, butterflies, pollinators

Rock gardens, woodland edges, above walls, perennial borders

‘Little Lanterns’ – dwarf cultivar

'Corbett' - compact with soft yellow flowers

Wild Sarsaparilla

Aralia nudicaulis

6 - 18" high

Divided leaves and small panicles of whitish-green flowers in spring followed by red to black berries

Rich to dry 

Woods, adaptable

Part shade to shade

Birds, pollinators

Woodland gardens

 

Wild Ginger

Asarum canadense

6" high

Low, spreading deciduous groundcover with aromatic heart-shaped leaves and curious nodding brown flowers

Moist soils

Rich woods, along streams, tolerates dry soil

Part shade to shade

Self pollinator

Outstanding groundcover for shady gardens or dry woodlands, path edges

 

Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias incarnata

3 - 6' high

Tall perennial with fragrant pink flowers held in round clusters atop willowy stems, rich in nectar

Wet to moist soils

Shrub swamps, marshes, damp meadows

Sun to part shade

High:

Butterflies love!!! Host for Monarchs

Small mammals and other pollinators

Deer resistant

Along stream or lakes, damp areas, damp meadows, perennial borders, butterfly gardens

 

Butterflyweed

Aslepias tuberosa

1 – 2’ high

Showy flat clusters of intricate bright orange flowers, rich in nectar, seedpods filled with silky hairs in fall

Moist to dry soils

Dry fields, shale barrens, roadsides – taproot, does not transplant easily

Sun to part shade

High:

Butterflies love!

Larval host food for Monarch butterfly,  other insect pollinators, songbird nesting material

Deer resistant

Dry, sunny areas, poor soils, meadows, butterfly gardens, drought tolerant,

 

Beggar-ticks, Sticktight

Bidens frondosa

Photo from:

Nova Scotia Wild Flora Society (nswildflora.ca), Copied 3/23/2010

3 - 4' high

Annual, w/ leaves on plants topped with small green leafy bracts w/ dull yellow petals, barbed seeds "stick tight" to clothes, weedy

Moist to dry

Damp soils along streams, ponds, disturbed areas

Sun to part shade

Songbirds, pollinators

Naturalizing, meadows, can be weedy, along damp areas, streams

 

False Nettle

Boehmeria cylindrica

Photo from: Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln.

Handmade Software, Inc. gif2jpg v2.0

3 - 4' high

Nettle like plant without stinging hairs, toothed pointed leaves and small green spikes of flowers in leaf axils

Moist

Damp shady sites, damp thickets, stream edges

Sun to shade

Butterflies, host to Red Admiral, Question mark, and Comma butterflies, pollinators

Naturalizing along damp, shady areas, stream or lake banks

 

Star Boltonia, False Aster

Boltonia asteroides

2 - 5' high

Tall, aster relative with clouds of starry white flowers  a top smooth blue green stems in early fall

Adaptable, wet to dry soils

Gravelly shores, sandy thickets

Sun to  part shade

Pollinators

Meadows, perennial borders, moist areas along sunny streams, lakes

 

Marsh Marigold

Caltha palustris

1 - 2' high

Large, bright yellow,  buttercup-like flowers above glossy leaves

Wet soils

Streams, seeps, swamps

Sun to part shade

Songbirds, pollinators

Damp to wet soils along streams, lakes, showy spring bloom

 

White Turtlehead

Chelone glabra

18" - 6' high

Late flowering, tall perennial with tubular white flowers like turtleheads in late summer/fall,

Moist to wet

Woods streambanks, swamps

Sun to part shade

Larval food source for rare Baltimore Checkerspot, butterflies, pollinators

Meadows, streambanks, woodland edges, best with some shade, spreads slowly

 

Pink Turtlehead*

Chelone lyonii

Showy pink tubular flowers atop tall stems in early fall, handsome, glossy ovate leaves

Moist to wet soils

Streams, damp woods, meadows in mountains

Sun to part shade

Butterflies, pollinators, hummingbirds

Perennial borders, woodland edges, stream or lake edges in moist soil

 

Green-and-Gold

Chrysogonum virginianum

6 - 12" high

Low spreading groundcover with bright yellow daisy-like flowers in spring & early summer

Moist to dry soil

Open woods, rocky soils, tolerates limestone - can rebloom

Sun to Shade

High:

Pollinators

Excellent groundcover that spreads by runners, woodland/edgesamong stepping stones

 

Spring Beauty

Claytonia virginica

6 - 12" high

Small ephemeral with starry pink flowers in earliest spring, forms colonies in moist soil, goes dormant in summer

Damp to moist soils

Rich woods, swamps

Part shade to shade

Insect pollinators like ants

Naturalizing in meadows, moist woods, shady gardens

 

Mistflower, Wild Ageratum

Conoclinium coelestinum

1 - 3' high

Spreading, sometimes aggressive, with fuzzy blue flowers from summer-fall

Wet to dry soils, very adaptable

Roadsides, thickets, swamps, streambanks

Part shade to shade

High:

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds

Naturalizing, meadows, along streams, lakes, can seed around and spread by rhizomes, bank cover

 

Threadleaf Coreopsis

Coreopsis verticillata

6 - 3' high

Small bright yellow daisy-like flowers all summer, ferny, threadlike green leaves

Moist to dry soil

Roadsides, dry open woods, fields

Sun to part shade

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds

Perennial borders, woodland edges, meadows

 

Wild Bleeding Heart

Dicentra eximia

6 - 24" high

Dainty heart shaped pink flowers dangle on short stalks above  ferny foliage

Moist to dry soil

Rich woods, cliffs, rocky woods

Part shade to shade

Songbirds, pollinators

Woodland gardens/path edges, shady rock gardens, top of stone walls

 

Purple Coneflower

Echinacea purpurea

2 - 4' high

Large daisy like flowers with pink-purple ray flowers around an orange cone, coarse toothed leaves

Moist to dry soil

Prairies, meadows, perennial borders

Sun to part shade

High:

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds, goldfinches

Perennial gardens, meadows, massing, naturalizing

Many, many cultivars in a range of colors and sizes

Coastal Joe-pye weed

Eupatorium dubium

AppleMark

3 - 6' high

Domed clusters of mauve-pink flowers in late summer & fall

(This species is shorter than others)

Wet to moist

Sandy soils, swamps, bogs, swales of coastal plain

Sun to part shade

High

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds

Damp meadows, stream or lake banks, back of perennial borders, butterflies

Other species are similar but taller, all are great plants

White Wood Aster

Eurybia (Aster) divaricata

6 - 36" high

Small woodland aster with small, white daisy-like flowers and heart shaped leaves from mid- summer to fall

Moist to dry

Woods

Part shade to shade

High:

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds

Woodland gardens, massing, can spread into small colonies, adds late bloom to shade gardens

 

Wild Geranium

Geranium maculatum

1 - 2' high

Long blooming, heat tolerant with soft mauve flowers from spring to early summer & lobed leaves

Moist to dry

Woods

Sun to part shade

High:

Butterflies, songbirds, pollinators

Woodland gardens, path edges, shady rock garden

‘Espresso’ –

Mauve flowers with handsome chocolate brown foliage

Swamp Sunflower

Helianthus angustifolius

3 - 8' high

Tall, willowy sunflower with dark centered yellow daisy flowers in fall

Moist to wet soils

Streams, swamps; tolerates regular soils

Sun

High:

Butterflies, songbirds, pollinators

Back of perennial border, stream or lake edges in damp soils

Many showy hybrids

American Alumroot

Heuchera americana

1 - 3' high

Handsome boldly lobed leaves, mottled with silver & maroon, tiny whitish-green flowers atop single stalk in late spring

Adaptable with well drained soils,

Rich woods, rocky slopes, ledges

Part shade to shade

Hummingbirds, pollinators

Outstanding foliage plant/groundcover for woodland gardens, shady rock gardens, slopes, walls

Several cultivars selected for showy foliage, parent of many garden hybrids with colorful foliage

Hairy Alumroot

Heuchera villosa

1 - 2.5' high

Soft, velvety, boldly lobed foliage, creamy white flower spikes in late summer/fall 

moist to dry soils, heat tolerant,

Damp rocks, rich woodland slopes

Part shade to shade

Hummingbirds, pollinators

Outstanding foliage plant/groundcover for woodland gardens, wooded slopes, prefers moist soil

‘Autumn Bride’ – popular with velvety gray green leaves and showy creamy white flower spikes in fall

Scarlet Hibiscus*

Hibiscus coccinea

6 - 8+' high

Tall, statuesque with showy red flowers atop tall willowy stems and finely cut leaves

Moist to wet

Swamps, marshes along SE coast, probably naturalized in SE VA

Sun

Hummingbirds, pollinators

Back of perennial border, damp to wet areas along streams, lakes

Many popular hybrid cultivars

Rose Mallow

Hibiscus moscheutos

3 - 6' high

Shrub -like, stately perennial, with large showy white or rose flowers in late summer, showy seedpods

Wet to moist soils

Fresh to brackish tidal and nontidal marshes of coastal plain

Sun to part shade

Hummingbirds

Perennial gardens, rain gardens, moist to wet soils along streams/lakes

 

Jewelweed

Impatiens capensis

1.5 - 4' high

Tall annual that seeds around prolifically in damp spots, spurred,  orange spotted flowers, succulent stems

Moist to damp soils n

Near water, streams

Part shade to shade

High: hummingbirds, songbirds, butterflies, pollinators

Annual that naturalizes in damp, shady areas along streams, lakes - can seed aggressively

Seedpod explodes with contact to propel tiny seeds, Sap is remedy/prevents   poison ivy

Crested Iris

Iris cristata

6" high

Creeping iris with blue crested flowers in spring, only 6" high, groundcover

Moist to dry soils

Open woodlands

Part shade

 

Excellent low groundcover iris, needs open site in sun or part shade

 

Blue flag

Iris versicolor

3 - 4' high

Blue flowers in May-June, atop  tall stems, sword like foliage

Wet to moist

Damp meadows, shores, swamps, streams; tolerates flooding

Sun to part shade

Songbirds, waterfowl, small mammals, pollinators

Perennial gardens, edges of ponds, streams, tolerates shallow water

 

Blazing Star, Gayfeather

Liatris spicata

2 - 5' high

Tall perennial with willowy leaves and spikes of feathery mauve flowers in summer

Moist to dry

Moist meadows, open areas, perennial garden

Sun to part shade

High:

Butterflies, songbirds, pollinators

Perennial borders, meadows, damp soils along streams, lakes

‘Kobold’ – shorter compact cultivar with showy flowers

Canada Lily

Lilium canadense

2 - 6'+ high

Tall, stately lily topped with showy orange trumpet like flowers in summer

Moist to wet

Woods, moist meadows

Sun to part shade

Butterflies, songbirds

Tall, elegant lily for cool woods, thickets, meadows, prefers deep soils

 

Cardinal Flower

Lobelia cardinalis

2 - 4' high

Tall, perennial with very showy spikes of tubular red flowers in late summer-fall, self sows in disturbed areas

Moist to wet

Marshes, wooded swamps, streambanks

Sun to part shade

High:

Hummingbirds love, butterflies, songbirds, pollinators

Perennial borders, damp meadows, stream or lake edges, seeds lightly in disturbed or non-mulched moist soils

Parent of many popular garden cultivars and hybrids

Great Blue Lobelia

Lobelia siphilitica

2 – 3’ high

Similar to above, but shorter and with spires of showy blue tubular flowers in late summer-fall

Moist to wet

Moist woodlands, meadows, swamps

Sun to shade

High:

Hummingbirds love, butterflies, songbirds, pollinators

Perennial borders, woodland edges, damp soils along streams, lakes, seeds lightly

Parent of many popular cultivars

False Solomon’s Seal

Maianthemum (Smilacina) racemosa

1 - 3.5' high

Gracefully arching stems topped with creamy white plumes in late spring to early summer, red berries in fall

Moist soils

Woodlands, bluffs

Part shade to shade

Songbirds, pollinators

Woodland gardens, great foliage texture with ferns, low groundcovers

 

Creeping Meehan's Mint

Meehanii cordata

Photo from: Stefan Bloodworth, http://www.wildflower.org

/gallery/result.php?id_image=19044

6 - 9" high

Creeping deciduous groundcover with tubular lavender blue flowers in late spring with heart shaped leaves

Moist

Woodland soils

Part shade

Pollinators

Great creeping groundcover for woodland gardens, shady stepping stones

 

Virginia Bluebells

Mertensia virginica

1 - 2.5' high

Lovely clusters of tubular pink to blue flowers in early spring; spring ephemeral - goes dormant in summer; interplant with ferns or foliage plants

Moist to wet

Rich woods, floodplains

Part shade to shade

Pollinators

Rich woodland gardens, damp soils along shady streams, goes dormant in summer, interplant with ferns, other foliage plants

 

Partridgeberry

Mitchella repens

3 - 6" high

Tiny, creeping, evergreen groundcover with tiny tubular white flowers and red berries

Dry acidic

Woods

Perfect creeping, evergreen groundcover for dry, acidic shade

Part shade to shade

Songbirds and small mammals

Evergreen, creeping groundcover for dry, acidic woods, along edges, paths

 

Beebalm, Oswego Tea

Monarda didyma

2 - 5' high

Tall, spreading perennial with showy red flowers in summer and aromatic foliage, used in herbal teas; spreads by rhizomes

Moist to wet

Creek banks, floodplains, meadows  - can spread quickly via rhizomes

Sun to part shade

High:

Hummingbirds, butterflies, pollinators, herbal uses

Deer resistant

Perennial borders, moist meadows, woodland edges, naturalizing, spreads vigorously by rhizomes

Many popular  hybrids and cultivars, look for mildew resistant forms

Wild Bergamot

Monarda fistulosa

1.5 - 5' high

Similar to above but with mauve-pink flowers, aromatic foliage, tolerates drier soils; spreads by rhizomes

Moist to dry

Fields thickets, forest edges

Sun to part shade

High:

Hummingbirds, songbirds, pollinators, herbal tea

Deer resistant

Perennial borders, meadows, tolerates drier soils, spreads by rhizomes

Many hybrid cultivars in a range of colors

Allegheny Spurge*

Pachysandra procumbens

6 - 12" high

Semi-evergreen groundcover with mottled leaves , pinkish flowers

Dry to moist

From mountains of SW VA and south*

Part shade to shade

Pollinators

Excellent semi-evergreen groundcover for woodlands, shade, spreads slowly

 

Golden Ragwort or Groundsel

Packera (Senecio) aurea

1 - 2.5" high

Spreading groundcover with handsome rounded leaves and gold, daisy-like flowers in spring and early summer

Moist to wet

Fields, woods, floodplains

Sun to shade

Butterflies, pollinators

Handsome, spreading groundcover for moist woodlands, damp soils

 

Beardtongue

Penstemon digitalis

1 - 4' high

Tubular, foxglove-like white flowers with violet veins, in late spring to early summer – heat tolerant, best species for SE

Moist to dry,  well drained soils

Open woods, meadows

Sun to part shade

Hummingbirds, pollinators

Perennial borders, woodland edges, meadows, rock gardens

‘Husker’s Red’ – popular cultivar with white flowers and maroon foliage

Hairy Beardtongue

Penstemon smallii

1 - 2.5' high

Smaller beardtongue with hairy foliage and soft pink tubular flowers in late spring-early summer

Well drained to dry soils

Rocky slopes, ledges, rock gardens

Sun to part shade

Hummingbirds, pollinators

Rock gardens, above walls, well drained soils along wooded edges

 

Woodland Phlox or Wild Sweet William

Phlox divaricata

6 - 1.5' high

Semi-evergreen woodland phlox with fragrant soft blue flowers for long period in late spring

Moist to dry soils

Rich woods along streambanks, but fairly drought tolerant

Part shade to shade

Butterflies, pollinators

Outstanding, semi-evergreen groundcover for woodland edges, paths, bank stabilizer in partial shade, tolerates dry shade

Several popular cultivars with colors from blue to pink to white

Garden Phlox

Phlox paniculata

2 - 4' high

Popular perennial with clouds of fragrant flowers in mauve-pink atop tall stems in summer

Moist soils

Rich, open woods, meadows, streambanks

Sun to part shade

Butterflies, pollinators

Perennial gardens, meadows, woodland edges

Many popular cultivars available in many colors

‘David’ – pure white, mildew resistant; ‘Bright Eyes’ – light pink with rose eye

Creeping Phlox

Phlox stolonifera

6 - 12" high

Low, creeping phlox with light blue to pink flowers in late spring

Moist, rich

Woods

Part shade to shade

Butterflies, pollinators

Excellent, creeping groundcover for woodlands, edges, along paths

Many cultivars in a range of colors

Moss-pink, Moss Phlox

Phlox subulata

6 - 12" high

Low, cushions of evergreen, needle-like foliage prolific showy flowers in early spring

Dry soils

Rock crevices, ledges, sunny banks, rock gardens - thrives on neglect

Sun

Moderately High:

Butterflies, pollinators

Tough evergreen groundcover for sunny rock gardens, above rock walls, slopes

Many, many cultivars with flowers from rose to pink, white, blue and bicolor

Obedient Plant, False Dragonhead

Physostegia virginiana

1.5 - 3' high

Showy spikes of tubular pink to  mauve flowers in late summer, atop rigid stems, spreads by rhizomes

Moist to dry

Moist open areas, streambanks, may spread aggressively in moist, rich soils

Sun to part shade

Hummingbirds, butterflies, pollinators

Perennial gardens, naturalizing, meadows, along streams, woodland edges

Can spread vigorously by rhizomes

Several available; ‘Miss Manners’ – white flowers less spreading

Mayapple

Podophyllum peltatum

6 - 24" high

Handsome mottled, umbrella like leaves with hidden white flower beneath in late spring, small, apple like fruit, goes dormant in summer

Moist soils

Rich woods

Part shade to shade

Edible fruit (rest of plant toxic), small mammals, turtles

Excellent foliage groundcover for woodlands, moist shady areas, spreads by rhizomes, goes dormant  in summer

 

Solomon’s Seal

Polygonatum (Actaea) biflorum

1 - 4' high

Handsome woodland groundcover with arching stems and pairs of dangling white flowers along stems

Moist to dry soils

Woods, adaptable

Part shade to shade

Pollinators, songbirds

Excellent for woodland gardens, combined with ferns, low groundcovers

 

Bowman's Root

Porteranthus trifoliatus

1.5 - 4' high

Starry white flowers in May-July atop handsome divided foliage

Dry to moist

Woods

Sun to shade

Pollinators

Perennial borders, woodland edges, meadows

 

Orange Coneflower

Rudbeckia fulgida

1 - 3' high

Bright yellow daisy like flowers with brown eyes in summer

Dry to moist soils

Open areas; adaptable

Sun

Moderately High:

Songbirds, pollinators, butterflies

Perennial borders, massing, meadows

 

Three-lobed Coneflower

Rudbeckia triloba

1 - 4.5' high

Small gold daisy like flowers with black cones from summer through fall, self sows and spreads

Dry to moist

Fields, meadows

Sun to part shade

Moderately High:

Songbirds, pollinators, butterflies

Naturalizing, meadows, woodland edges, spreads about by seed

 

Wild Petunia

Ruellia humulis

1 - 3' high

Lavender blue flowers from late spring thru summer, atop 1 - 2' plant, seeds around abunantly

Dry to moist

Roadsides, meadows, thickets

Sun to part shade

Butterflies, pollinators

Naturalizing, meadows, seeds about freely

 

Lyre-leaf Sage

Salvia lyrata

LEAD Technologies Inc. V1.01

6 - 24" high

Tubular violet flowers on wiry stems from basal rosette of leaves

Dry to moist

Upland woods, meadows, thickets, among rocks

Sun to part shade

Butterflies, pollinators

Naturalizing, among rocks, stepping stones, woodland edges, dry slopes

 

Wild Stonecrop

Sedum ternatum

6" high

Starry white flowers in late spring atop creeping stems with dainty, succulent leaves

Moist soils

Among rocks, ledges, cliffs

Part shade to shade

Pollinators

Creeping groundcover for shady gardens, shady rock gardens, among stepping stones

 

Bluestem Goldenrod

Solidago caesia

1 - 3.5' high

Small yellow flowers along stem from Aug. - Oct. with low arching bluish- purple stems

Dry to moist

Rich deciduous woods

Sun to Full shade

High:

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds, small mammals

Woodland edges and partly shaded gardens, late season bloom

 

Rough-stemmed Goldenrod

Solidago rugosa

2 - 6' high

Showy, arching sprays of tiny yellow flowers Aug. - Nov.,  , spreads into large clumps

Dry to wet

Fields, woods, floodplains, roadsides

Sun to part shade

High:

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds, small mammals

Cultivars in perennial borders, meadows, naturalizing, woodland edges

'Fireworks' - compact cultivar to 3' high w/ showy flowers, great garden plant

Indian Pink*

Spigelia marilandica

1 - 3' high

Deciduous with bright red tubular flowers tipped in yellow May - July

Moist woodlands

Native to Mountains*

Sun to part shade

Hummingbirds, pollinators

Woodland gardens, perennial gardens with light shade

 

Nodding Ladies Tresses

Spiranthes cernua

6 - 24" high

Delicate orchid with small white fragrant flowers -Aug. - Nov., strap-like leaves

Moist to wet soils

Native to meadows, bogs, streambanks

Sun to part shade

Pollinators

Bog gardens, damp edges of ponds, lakes, damp meadows, woodland edges

 

Celandine Poppy

Stylophorum* diphyllum

1 - 2.5' high

Clumps of lacy, lobed leaves are topped by large yellow, poppy like flowers from April - June; fuzzy seed pods, seeds itself around

Moist soils in rich woods, easy to grow

Mountains of SE*

Part shade to shade

Pollinators, songbirds

Naturalizing in woodland gardens, spreads by seed, may go dormant by late summer

 

Smooth Aster

Symphyotrichum laeve (formerly
Aster)

1 - 5'  high

Aster with clouds of violet blue flowers Aug. - Oct. and smooth glaucous stems, upright, neat habit

Moist soils

Forest edges, open areas, meadows, garden borders

Sun to part shade

High:

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds

Outstanding for perennial gardens, meadows, woodland edges, late season bloom

'Bluebird' - top rated cultivar in Mt. Cuba aster trials, showy flowers, great foliage, no diseases

New England Aster

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae

1 - 6' high

Common aster with violet blue flowers Aug.-Oct., tall billowy habit

Moist soils

Open woods, meadows, seasonal wetlands, shores

Sun to Part shade

High :

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds

Naturalizing, meadows, perennial borders, can spread, may need to be pinched back by 1/2 in June or staked

'Purple Dome' dwarf cultivar to 2' H with purple flowers

New York Aster

Symphyotrichum novi-belgii

1 - 4' high

Smaller aster w/ blue violet flowers from Aug.-Oct.

Moist to wet soils

Meadows, shores, thickets

Sun to Part shade

High:

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds

Perennial borders, meadows, damp soil along streams

Many dwarf cultivars such as Woods Dwarf

Calico Aster

Symphyotrichum laterifloris

2 - 4' high

Tiny white flowers

 with yellow to reddish eye on spreading stems Aug - Oct. Plants form airy clumps often with horizontal stems

Dry to moist soils

Meadows, thickets, roadsides

Sun to Part shade

High:

Butterflies, pollinators, songbirds

Naturalizing, meadows, perennial borders

'Lady in Black' purple bronze leaves with tall graceful sprays of tiny white flowers

Foamflower

Tiarella cordifolia

6 - 18" high

Evergreen heart-shaped leaves with mottled leaves and spikes of starry white flowers in May-June.
Can be  spreading or clump forming

Great ground- cover for shade

Moist soils

Rich moist woods, rocky wooded slopes, streambanks of mountains

Part Sun to Shade

Pollinators

Outstanding groundcover for woodland gardens, shady perennial borders, looks great in masses

Many showy cultivars - some spreaders ('Jeepers Creepers') & clump formers ('Pink Bouquet', 'Pink Brushes )w/ showy flowers

Spiderwort

Tradescantia virginica

1 - 3' high

Fleshy stems, strap- like leaves with clusters of 3-petalled, blue to purple flowers - May - July

Moist soils

Woods, roadsides, shale outcrops

Sun to shade

Pollinators

Perennial gardens, naturalizing, meadows, woodland edges

Many hybrids available in a range of colors

Great Bellwort

Uvularia grandiflora

1 - 3' high

Woodland perennial with arching stems and twisted yellow bell-like flowers in spring, 2' tall

Moist soils

Rich woods

Part shade to shade

Pollinators

Rhizomes and young shoots may be eaten, substituted for asparagus

Woodland gardens, shady borders, great foliage, blooms

 

Common Blue Violet

Viola sororia

6 - 12" high

Common violet with blue purple flowers atop low heart shaped leaves,

Seeds about, spreading groundcover for tough or low maintenance areas

Dry to moist

Woods, swamps, thickets

Sun to shade

Insect pollinators, violets host of  fritillary butterflies, small mammals, songbirds

Woodlands, lawns, can spread vigorously in lawns, damp soils, excellent groundcover for tough sites where it can spread

 

 

Grasses

Pennsylvania Sedge

Carex pennsylvanica

6 - 12" high

Fine textured, low grass-like plant, with mounding habit

Dry to moist

Wooded slopes, dry sandy or rocky woods

Part to full shade

Songbirds and waterfowl

Woodlands, shady banks, rock slopes

Lawn substitute for shady areas

 

River oats,

Chasmanthium latifolium

2 - 4' high

 Airy, bamboo-like foliage, ornamental seed heads dangle from  arching stems in fall

Dry to moist

Streambankswet woodlands

Sun to part shade

Songbirds

Woodlands, along streams, rivers, bank stabilizer;

 can spread aggressively by seed in moist soil

 

Switchgrass

Panicum virgatum

3 - 5' high

Adaptable, medium sized grass, with airy flowers and seedheads, gold to red in fall.

Dry to wet

Adaptable -grows in marshes, wet meadows, open woods, prairies, dunes

Sun to part shade

Songbirds, sparrows, waterfowl, small mammals

Ornamental grass for massing, perennial borders, bank & slope stabilization; prevents erosion

'Shenandoah' - compact to 3', turning vivid red in late summer-fall

'Heavy Metal' - 4-5', blue-green, narrow upright habit

Soft Rush

Juncus effusus

1- 4' high

 Evergreen, grass-like rush, forming architectural clumps  .

Bright green, round stems, and clusters of brown flowers from sides of stems.

Moist to wet

Tolerates flooding to 12", fresh marshes, shrub swamps, wet meadows

Sun to part shade

Songbirds, waterfowl, small mammals

Edges of streams, ponds, rain gardens, tolerates shallow flooding

 

 

 

Ferns - Most ferns are deer resistant

Northern Maidenhair Fern

Adiantum pedatum

1 - 2' high

Deciduous clump forming fern with wiry black leaf stalks divided into fan shape with fronds radiating like fingers on a hand. Lovely and delicate.

Moist

Moist woods, rocky shady sites

Part shade to shade

 

Moist woodlands, slopes, shady rock gardens, calcium rich soils

 

Lady Fern

Athyrium filix-femina

1 - 3' high

Classic deciduous fern with graceful fronds, green or red leaf stalks

Moist to wet

Woods, banks of streams, sandy bogs

Part shade

 

Woodlands damp streambanks, bogs

 

Cinnamon Fern

Osmunda cinnamomea

2 - 5' high

Large, deciduous arching fern with cinnamon colored spore bearing fronds in spring

Moist to wet

Woods swamps, bogs, streamsides, also drought tolerant

Sun (with moist soils) to shade

 

Damp to wet soils along streams, ponds, bogs

 

Christmas Fern

Polystichum acrostichoides

 6" - 2' high

Evergreen fern with leathery simple green fronds,  very adaptable clump former

Dry to moist

Woods, thickets, steep, rocky slopes

Part shade to shade

 

Woodlands, dry slopes, damp edges of streams, shady rock gardens, outstanding groundcover  for shade

 

New York Fern

Thelypteris noveboracensis

1 - 2.5' high

Fine textured deciduous fern which spreads into colonies, good spreading groundcover

Moist to wet

Forested wetlands dry to damp woods

Part shade to shade

 

Damp to dry woods, streambanks, spreads into large colonies in moist soils